Nature Communications 14: 4102.
Polyploidization can provide a wealth of genetic variation for adaptive evolution and speciation, but understanding the mechanisms of subgenome evolution as well as its dynamics and ultimate consequences remains elusive. Here, we report the telomere-to-telomere (T2T) gap-free reference genome of allotetraploid horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) sequenced using a comprehensive strategy. The (epi)genomic architecture and 3D chromatin structure of the A and B subgenomes differ significantly, suggesting that both the dynamics of the dominant long terminal repeat retrotransposons and DNA methylation have played critical roles in subgenome diversification. Investigation of the genetic basis of biosynthesis of glucosinolates (GSLs) and horseradish peroxidases reveals both the important role of polyploidization and subgenome differentiation in shaping the key traits. Continuous duplication and divergence of essential genes of GSL biosynthesis (e.g., FMOGS-OX, IGMT, and GH1 gene family) contribute to the broad GSL profile in horseradish. Overall, the T2T assembly of the allotetraploid horseradish genome expands our understanding of polyploid genome evolution and provides a fundamental genetic resource for breeding and genetic improvement of horseradish.